Has spare infrastructure capacity in the inner city disappeared?Posted: September 21, 2011 Filed under: Education, justice, health | Tags: capacity, Coburg High School, gentrification, Infrastructure, Inner city, outer suburbs 12 Comments
The received wisdom is it costs much less to provide infrastructure for an inner suburban dwelling than for one in the outer suburbs. However, as I noted last time, we don’t know how big the difference is or even, for that matter, if it’s positive or negative – we simply lack reliable evidence.
There are reasons, however, to suspect the savings in infrastructure outlays associated with urban consolidation might be much less than is widely thought. It’s plausible that the popular claim of an $85,000 per dwelling saving could be well off the mark (note I’m only talking in this post about the capital cost of infrastructure, not the economic costs and benefits of a fringe vs central location).
From the time urban consolidation was first seriously put on the table in Australia as a policy option, a key premise was the availability of ‘spare’ infrastructure capacity in the inner city. This part of the city had previously supported larger working class and migrant populations, so there was ‘free’ infrastructure to be had in support of a restoration of earlier population levels.
There’s not much sense in assuming any capacity is free (it all has to be paid for) but looking from the perspective of 2011, there are reasons to question if there actually is any spare physical capacity left, at least in relation to some types of infrastructure.
A key reason is a lot of whatever spare infrastructure capacity existed has already been used up by gentrification. At the 2006 Census, there were 36,488 more residents in the inner city of Melbourne than there were in 1976 (and 76,422 more than when the inner city was at its lowest ebb in 1991). In fact of the 31 municipalities in metropolitan Melbourne, only the City of Moreland and the adjacent City of Darebin had significantly fewer residents in 2006 than in 1976 – Moreland had 14,585 fewer and Darebin 17,137 fewer. That is not a lot in the context of projections Melbourne will grow from a current population of four million to seven million by circa 2049.
Even where there are fewer residents today than in the past, they might still have a much larger “infrastructure footprint” than their predecessors. Modern households have many more resource-intensive devices like flat panel TVs, air conditioners, heaters, computers, spas, and so on, than their predecessors. They have more cars than former residents, so there’s less room for parking. They also have higher standards – the primary school that used to accommodate 300 kids in six or seven classrooms now has to build twelve to handle the same enrolment.
Moreover, households today are smaller on average, so they have fewer ‘economies of scale’ in resource consumption than earlier generations. Two households of three persons each use more gas for heating than they would if the same six residents shared a single dwelling. Gentrifying households are also wealthier on average than the sorts of households who used to live in the inner city and inner suburbs 30 to 40 years ago. On a per capita basis, wealthier households consume more of just about everything worth having. Again, that will require more infrastructure capacity.
Thus it’s possible infrastructure in some locations could be at or above capacity even with a much lower population than those places housed in the 1970s.
Another consideration is that some infrastructure no longer exists – it’s been closed down or sold off. For example, four high schools have closed in Melbourne’s north over the last twenty years:
The troubled Moreland City College closed in 2004. Coburg High School shut its doors in 1993 and is now the site for a planned 510 apartments. Newlands High School, now part of the Pentridge Prison development, folded in 1993. Moreland High School taught its final class in 1991 and is now Kangan Batman TAFE”
With recent gentrification, the Coburg community has called for the construction of a new junior high school in the area to meet rising demand. Given higher land prices and the greater expense of building on a potentially constrained site, providing a new school in Coburg would very likely be much more expensive that building a comparable size school on the fringe.
This case also highlights some other potential difficulties with the idea of spare infrastructure capacity. The Department of Education says there’s spare capacity in other nearby schools, but the residents of Coburg don’t see these as adequate substitutes. They’re either too far away, too big, don’t offer the right subject selections, or the demographics of the school populations is unpalatable. In other words, so far as the new population of Coburg is concerned, there is no spare capacity – they have different and more costly standards than earlier generations. Of course even spare capacity (as defined by the Department) in these other schools will eventually be consumed as Coburg continues to gentrify.
A related complication is ensuring relative infrastructure costs in inner and outer areas are assessed on a comparable basis. Sometimes claimed available capacity isn’t ‘spare’ at all but rather represents a reduction in standards, for example when new classrooms are built at the expense of playgrounds. Additional classrooms are a good thing, but some allowance needs to be made in comparing costs for the reduction in open space.
These observations don’t necessarily apply to all infrastructure, in all locations, at all times. A rigorous evaluation of infrastructure costs is the only way to determine to what extent infrastructure outlays – particularly those incurred at public expense – differ by location. However to the extent they rely on the assumption of spare capacity, there’s good reason to think that the sort of cost advantage central areas had over fringe areas even twenty or so years ago, might be much diminished today. That doesn’t mean urban consolidation isn’t a good idea – it is! – but it may need to be justified primarily on other grounds like economic benefits and enhanced housing choice.
In conclusion, it should be noted that spare capacity isn’t the only rationale for the idea that infrastructure costs less to provide in the inner city and inner suburbs. One argument is the combination of a central location and higher density lessens (endogenously) the need for some infrastructure, specifically roads, compared to the fringe. It’s true that residents of inner areas tend to use cars less, but account would need to be taken of the additional costs of public transport infrastructure they require, such as additional rolling stock and in some cases new tram and rail lines (there could also be a higher operating cost to government).
Presumably you’d want to serve any outer suburb with public transport as well, which would also require additional rollingstock, although most likely in the form of buses. There would be two options here for picking routes, have a couple of lines, some heading across suburbs, some heading directly into the city, etc. This going to require quite a bit of extra rolling stock to take care of, and of course wouldn’t be profitable so more subsidies. The other option is having one or two smaller routes that connect with other services, this will still require extra rolling stock to serve the lines, but as they’re likely to be short, less than the first option. It will however add some extra stress to the connections.
All this aside, extra rolling stock is a good thing, it means shorter wait times. There will be additional costs to the government, but that’ll be the case with any extra services added until there are some pretty big changes (primarily moving more towards a connections based system).
Having studied at Sydney University, I am not surprised about what the Stockholm building is. Have you ever seen the Wilkinson Building?
Do you mean this brute? Is it true it was built in 2002? (it looks like it’s from another era! or maybe from North Korea). If so, it was well after my time at US.
For that matter, the equivalent building at the equivalent institution in Melbourne is also amazingly ugly, though improved a little by renovations in the 1990s.
Robert, wait to till you see the new one!
Correct re; much increased use of everything by today’s people than those of 1976 (or earlier when the population of the inner suburbs was probably even higher). The selling off of schools was silly in retrospect.
The Stockholm building reminded me, eerily, of all the hours I have spent admiring Buildings 10, 12, and 14 at RMIT. The ones with the mouse-hole entry along Swanston St.
The US State of Maryland appears to believe that sprawl is expensive http://archpaper.com/news/articles.asp?id=5638
That’s not surprising, it’s the orthodox view among planning agencies. Also, sprawl is much lower density in the US than it is here, so it’s more likely there’ll be savings in infrastructure costs. Having said that, is there anything in that link indicating they know any better than we do if the estimated saving is accurate?
What Australians call sprawl and what planners in the United States call sprawl is not the same thing. In the US, sprawl means the wholesale abandonment of the inner suburbs in favour of fringe development. Houses becoming empty fields. That never happened in Australia. In fact, if you read Bruegmann’s “Sprawl” you’ll hear him refer to Australian cities, including Melbourne being held up as “models of anti-sprawl” by American planners.
This cannot be emphasised enough: American studies of city structure are close to worthless, in reference to Australian cities. Their socio-economic make-up is completely different.
I think that inner areas of cities are created to make rich people more rich. Its to perserve wealth and help concentrate it. The design of the city is wrong. If i had more time I probably could go into the math and work out and proof that is what is going on. This is creating the congestion. WE need to have satellite hubs in melbourne and move the congestion out of the center of the city. We need cbds like a spoke wheel. WHere? I am not sure. I think that the ring road success helps validate the idea of having satellite cities with cbds.
How do we do this? We need to have green islands between these areas and then calculate the space and cost to build upward and how much room is needed per car and other public transport. There are economies of scare with public transport. We can have a spread out city but we need areas concentrated near hubs to get the economies of scale.
Everything I write about has been discussed before and the technology and knowledge is well known. Though the application is not there because there are special interests against this. I believe the status quo is preserve the wealth of the rich.
Johnyboy, Hugh Stretton said much the same thing in the 1970s. That concentrating spending on jobs and services in the centre of the city, while accessible to everyone in the city, increases the disparity in housing value between the centre and suburbs, who for lack of proximity get very little value out of the centre, He argued that Dandenong ought to have an arts centre equal to that of the CBD, as accessible to the million people in the south-east, as the Southbank arts centre is to the million people in the inner/middle suburbs.